In attendance: Ken, Emily, Peter, Zeke, Eric, Mike, Mark (via Skype), Andy, and Kim
Business and News
- We’ll travel to Bath County, Virginia, for the annual grotto trip and stay at the RASS field house. It has flush toilets, showers, picnic tables, and no alcohol restrictions. Saturday we’ll cave somewhere, and then Sunday we’ll cave somewhere else. Porters and Blowing Cave are two possibilities.
- The nice owner of Mystic Cave in Pendleton County, WV, died and the family might like to rent the home to cavers as a field house.
- Monongahela National Forest is considering reopening caves to scientific pursuits.
- The Triangle Troglodytes are in the current issue of Walter magazine.
- The museum has asked for feedback to help justify events like Darwin Day and BugFest.
- Interested in cave surveying? Lowmoor Cave has an ongoing survey.
Girl Scout trip to New River Cave
Emily, Ken, Lisa, and Diana took six Girl Scouts and two Scout parents to New River Cave. The group originally planned to visit Rehoboth Church Cave, but the weather had other ideas. The Scouts had a great time despite the onslaught of trains, rain, and frigid temperatures the previous night. A few are eager to go on another trip. The parents, though they have a new appreciation for cave exploration, less so.
- Mark and six others went to Paxton’s. They were having so much fun avoiding some water and a few difficult climbs that the trip lasted a couple hours longer than anticipated. They came across some salamanders and a turtle who got washed in. One of the landowner’s dogs peed on Rob’s pack.
Cave Art – presented by Emily Graham
In attendance: Pete, Ken, Eric, Emily, Lauren, Mike I., Jim, Mike B., Lisa, Zeke, Robert, and Mark.
[I missed the question, but the answers were, respectively:] chocolate, cookies, soap, Graham crackers, cheese, chocolate syrup, Nerdz, cheese, Nerdz, marshmallow creme, ditto, and blue food coloring.
- Cave suggestions for the annual grotto trip? Crossroads, maybe? Suggestions?
- Dues. Pay them if you haven’t. You may do so online via PayPal.
- Wanna help get people on rope for Over The Edge? You get to rappel off the Wells Fargo building. There’s a training session on September 29, and the rappel date is September 30. Contact Mark if you’re interested in volunteering.
- Lisa and Mike went up for another BCCS project dig. After a super tight squeeze, Lisa has decided that all such future endeavors will be done in her slightly plasticized cave suit, rather than the one that catches on everything. It looks like it goes but it needs some serious work. Join them for a Butler dig. There is beer and an outdoor shower.
- Rob went to Pig Hole Cave which has a rather pretty entrance pit. He knows the cave well enough now to lead a trip there. Also, he witnessed a self-rescue.
- Jim described his trip to Grand Caverns for the Easter restoration weekend. He hauled gravel around and Ken gave him a tour. He also went to next-door Fountain Cave where he crawled through a maze.
- After Grand Caverns and Fountain, Zeke, Ken, Eric, and Eric’s five-year-old visited Madison Cave. They saw George Washington’s John Hancock. Zeke noted how very blue the water was beneath the calcite rafts and remarked on how hard it was to find the cave, hiking “thousands of feet up the side of the mountain, through a jungle, in the dark.”
- Pete visited Wakulla Springs in Florida, where a mastodon was found. Ten years ago, Wakulla Springs was established as the longest underwater cave system in the US.
- Mark, Ken, Dave, and Carlin continued the SnoCone survey. Brian, Steph, and Carlin surveyed the stream passage. Ken, Dave, and Mark entered a huge room with a 30-foot waterfall and formations that resemble hanging tobacco leaves. They generated one lead, to a ledge above the waterfall, but reaching it will require scaling poles. The next day, they found Dutton’s Cave and Radon Cave.
Culinary Experiments in Limestone Hydrology – Ken Walsh
The question posed this month gave us a chance to show off how well-traveled our group is. Among the nearly 20 attendees, we have visited 335 U.S. states, 87 countries, and 48 continents.
After going over the basic mechanics, safety, tools, and ethics of setting bolts in caves, Carlin led us outside the museum for a bolting demonstration. Several people drilled into the concrete blocks that he’d lugged along, while others convinced the local constabulary that we were on the up-and-up.
After the program we spent several minutes being herded and photographed by someone from Walter Magazine for a piece that might come out in May.
- We have now acquired a campsite for the grotto’s annual trip on August 26. Cave to be determined.
- If there’s enough interest, we will likely continue the social outings between monthly meetings, with the next one taking place in a couple weeks.
- Yearly dues are $15 per individual, or $22 per family. Pay one of the officers or pay online using PayPal.
- April’s meeting program will help you decipher those charts that come with your headlamp instructions.
- Mike went to the BCCS pancakes weekend. Inclement weather discouraged surface digging, so they opted to go into Helictite Cave to work on the Supersweet Dig. It’s not really all that sweet any more, but it maintains the speleo-ingenuity that’s characteristic of projects in the area. They moved the equivalent of about 80 five-gallon bucketfuls of spoils. There is still air flow, but no breakthrough.
- Carlin dealt out some guilt for being the only TriTrog to go to Perkins Cave for the recent survey weekend. No one expressed remorse after hearing about the 800-Foot Crawl he had to navigate just to get to the area they’d be surveying. He claimed that it opened up into walking passage in every direction, with plenty of surveying left to be done.
- Apr. 1 – SnoCone survey (Dave)
- Apr. 15 – Grand Caverns Easter Restoration (Ken)
- Apr. 28-30 – Spring VAR
- May 6-7 – Scout trip to Rehoboth Church Cave (Emily)
- May ?? – beginner trip (Mark)
- June 18-23 – NSS Convention in NM
- Aug. 26-27 – TriTrogs annual fun trip
We introduced ourselves with examples of programs we’d like to see at future meetings. In attendance were Mark, Mike, Carlin, Peter, Robert, Yue, Katie, Emily, Grant, Jenny, Ken, Eric, Jim, and Esther. Program ideas included bolting, surveying, Martian caves, cave art, cave ecology, geography, safety, microblasting, microbrews, gear comparisons, and gear cleaning.
- The meeting minutes from the previous week’s officers’ meeting have been posted on the website.
- Annual dues can be paid to a grotto officer or online via PayPal. $15 for an individual, or $22 for a family.
- Mike and Lisa went to a BCCS weekend in February and caved at Bobcat Cave. It turned out to be a great introduction to what sounds like a really nasty, unwelcoming cave. They went in with a scientist who was collecting… science stuff… so they got to move slowly and didn’t ever get really far. They did get completely slimed. And they found ten bats, nine of which had signs of WNS. The collected science stuff included a beetle and isopods.
- Eric, Dave, and Emily formed one of two survey teams that ventured into SnoCone Cave one weekend. Eric described it as “trauma, trauma, and trauma; and then a really tiny hole.” To be fair, it was his first etrier, first survey, and first dig. That dig still blows. Meanwhile…
- All ready to mop up this survey, Carlin’s team started with the rigging that he had left behind a year ago. They found what might be a bobcat footprint and about 20 baby salamanders, did some mildly scary vertical stuff, and went to check that one last wet lead. And it goes. From belly crawl to hands and knees to canyon passage. Then it keeps going, gets decorated, and keeps going. But the really fun part was not telling the discouraged dig team about it until dinner.
- Mark led Yue, Eric, and two others on a beginner trip to Paxton’s Cave. They did a lot of crawling. And more crawling. But Mark got them to the Throne Room with relative ease and it did not disappoint. They meditated in the dark, held their lights up to the flowstone to make the formations glow, and were traumatized to varying degrees when they stumbled upon evidence of a reenactment of Toy Story.
- Peter, Ken, Eric, and Emily joined up with three members of Walker Mountain Grotto for the Spring trip to Hancock Cave. They spent six hours doing a good bit of sporting caving. Ken posted a trip report.
- Carlin, Dave, and Tanya surveyed in Stone’s #1 and left some unpleasant stuff for Ken to get back to. They also located Stone’s #2 which might make a good first cartography project for someone.
Upcoming Trips and Events
- Mar 18: horizontal sport trip (Martin)
- Mar 18: BCCS pancake digging weekend (Mike and Lisa)
- Mar 18: ACC Perkins Cave surveying and sport trips (Carlin)
- Apr 1: SnoCone survey (Carlin)
- Apr 15: Grand Caverns Easter cleanup (Ken)
- Apr 28-30: Spring VAR – lots of horizontal caves near campground
- May 7: Girl Scout trip to Rehoboth Church Cave (Emily)
- Jun 18-23: NSS Convention in New Mexico
- Aug 26-27: TriTrogs annual fun trip
TriTrog of the Year Award Presentation
Congratulations, Mike Broome!
Ken tested our knowledge of cave map symbols with a team competition. The survivors got to fight over the best chocolate bars.
In attendance: Mark Daughtridge (Chair), Ken Walsh (Vice Chair), Carlin Kartchner (Webmaster), Emily Graham (Secretary), Martin Groenewegen (Treasurer)
We threw around some program ideas. Topics ranged from headlamp comparisons to basic hydrology, with several viable hands-on programs, one of which can be pulled together for the February meeting.
We settled on a date for this year’s annual grotto sport trip: August 26-27. We talked about camping at the RASS Field Station [Martin] and beginner caving options in that area [Mike B?].
The bank account hasn’t yet been turned over to Martin, but we went ahead and discussed expenses. Officers approved up to $50 for protective cases for our four loaner headlamps. We also need to actually make the NSS HQ donation that was approved for last year.
Mark committed to host this year’s holiday party.
We again expressed a desire to have a members only area of the TriTrogs website which would include a membership list with names and phone numbers and/or email addresses. Gathering this information may require an updated membership form, which should also be added to the website. To prevent confusion about joining the grotto, [Mark?] will pin a message to the facebook group page that directs people to the TriTrogs website.
Regarding recruitment, we agreed to offer a modest end-of-year award for the year’s best posted trip report, since the number of trip reports directly reflects the grotto’s activities and draws prospective members. We agreed that encouraging newbie sport trips should include an understanding of the expected commitment involved, in order to avoid last-minute cancellations.
We’d like to continue the grotto’s Social Tuesday outings, but maybe on Wednesdays instead.
We also tossed around the idea of having an auction, or possibly a flea market, as a fund raising effort.
We were Carlin, Emily, Eric, Joel, Ken, Mark, Martin, Peter, and Steve. Caving-related bribes we might consider, in no particular order (for future deniability): a set of clean instruments, a rope walker system, a Swaygo pack, promising leads, virgin passage, more virgin passage, unfettered access to vertical drops, lifting of the ban on caving on National Forest System lands, ownership of a stunning and never-ending cave, and a caving trip catered by street vendors.
- Dues: Dues for the year are $15. Pay using PayPal or give your money to any grotto officer.
- Website: Ken posted a trip report but it didn’t go out on listserv, likely due to user error. Carlin has applied the latest WordPress security update.
- Thanks: to Rob for hosting the holiday party.
- Annual Reports: The Treasurer’s report will be posted to the website. Emily will submit the Annual IO Report by the end of January.
- Ken, Dave, and Tanya began a survey of Stone’s #1 in Smyth Co. They spent seven hours underground and netted 585 feet. It still goes. In the process they came across some yellow fungus arranged in tidy lines, like primitive writing or circuitry, and a bright orange flowstone formation.
- Meanwhile, Carlin, Mark, Matthew, and Michael continued the survey of nearby Cassell’s Cave. Matthew proved that he has some sketching skills, though he had some difficulty keeping his hands clean in the very low muddy section of the cave.
- Mark, Ken, Peter, and Emily returned to Cassell’s to finish the survey. This involved rigging a cable ladder to descend the crumbly walls of a twenty-foot pit, and struggling through two tight, low crawls. Mark retrieved the 50 feet of webbing that Carlin had left behind, but it was then stolen from the pile of gear we left by the cars by a neighborhood dog while we took a quick tour of Stone’s #1. [Ken’s trip report]
Upcoming Trips and Activities
- Feb. 4: Beginner trip to Paxton’s or New River Cave (Mark D.)
- Feb. 8: Pun contest at Motorco. It will sell out! (Mark D.)
- Feb. 11: Darwin Day at the Museum of Natural Sciences. Volunteers needed. (Peter, Emily)
- Feb. 18: SnoCone survey. A short drop to a blowing dig and a more technical lead that might end. (Dave)
- Feb. 19: Hancock Cave bat count (Ken and Walker Mountain Grotto)
- Mar. 18: Martin wants to do a horizontal trip somewhere.
- Apr. 15: Grand Caverns Restoration Camp (Ken probably)
- Apr. 28-30: Spring VAR at Thorn Springs Park, Franklin, WV
- May 7: Girl Scout trip to Rehoboth Church Cave (Emily)
Some of us practiced tying water knots in lengths of webbing.
Election of Officers
- Chair: Mark Daughtridge
- Vice Chair: Ken Walsh
- Webmaster: Carlin Kartchner
- Secretary: Emily Graham
- Treasurer: Martin Groenewegen
We were Ken, Dave, Carlin, Peter, Robert, Michael, Mark, Emily, and Matthew.
When we aren’t caving we get lost in the woods, bike on mountains, bike on roads, kayak on water, snowboard on snow, hike anywhere, do social justicing, make costumes, and suck at bowling.
- Dues: If you haven’t paid for the year, dues go to Joel or any officer. [If you pay online I think PayPal still says it’s $15; it should be $7.50 through December.]
- Website: There was some discussion in favor of recreating the members’ only section of the website, specifically, including a list of members, their phone numbers and email addresses.
- Program: The next meeting is in January. Rob proposed a TriTrogs Grotto History presentation.
- Party: The grotto holiday party will be Friday, December 9, at 7:30 at Rob’s house in Raleigh. It’s a potluck event, and someone needs to step up to help coordinate, because it would be a crying shame if everyone brought desserts. And beer. [Yay! Diana started a Doodle poll.]
- Hancock Cave Bat Count and Graffiti Cleanup. We split into two groups: Mike and Lisa led two newish cavers, and Mark, Emily, and Steve were with four first-time cavers. The dryness of the cave during this trip meant that they could venture past the Funnel Tunnel, and that’s where Mike and Lisa’s group spent much of their time and where the only two bats were seen. The group with Mark saw zero bats but they cleaned up some graffiti [the big question mark and arrow] in the Grantham Room. They also ascended the Breakdown Staircase, disappeared through the Comic Book Hole, waited patiently while Mark and Emily snaked through the Funnel Tunnel and back, and exited the cave in good spirits.
- Norman Cave Photography Trip. Michael and Ken bundled up in their warmer layers and joined Matthew in his natural habitat. Michael said they photographed everything that was fascinating or beautiful, including a black snake that found shelter near the entrance, lots of formations, and lots of cold watery passages. Matthew carried in two of his bulky homemade battery-operated suns and repeatedly promised to retire the more enormous one. They all shared their lovely photos from the trip on facebook. It was snowing when they emerged.
- Paxton’s Cave Maze. Mark, Emily, Lauren, and Mike E. took a leisure trip to Paxton’s. There’s a very friendly brown dog on the property, and the owners assured the group that it was just deer’s blood all over the muzzle of the tiny white dog that greeted them. Mark impressed everyone by not getting the group lost, although he admits he didn’t get to where he intended and wasn’t always totally sure where he was. The others were more than happy to follow, since he was armed with a compass, a partial map, and a welcome air of confidence. It didn’t hurt that they found a surprising number and variety of extremely pretty formations in different areas of the cave. They saw no living bats but came across two dead bats (no signs of WNS). It was snowing when they emerged.
- Lost World Caverns. Pete’s rope team goes to this cave every year to rig a couple of ropes at the original entrance and rappel down into the commercial portion of the cave. The original entrance is a 120-foot pit called the Grapevine Drop. It’s not in use, but tourists can view it from below. The temperature right outside that entrance was really nice with the warmer air blowing out. Pete also got to take a tour through the wild part of the cave. And he got snowed on, too.
Upcoming Trips and Activities
- December 3 weekend – Smyth County survey with Dave D. (Cassell’s Cave has a short vertical section and some undetermined amount of low horizontal stuff. Stone’s #1 needs surveying. SnoCone?)
- December 9 – TriTrogs Birthday/Holiday Party at Rob’s at 7:30. Potluck.
- December 27-31 – Wythe County surveying with Bill Grose et al.
- New Year’s caving trip (Dec. 31 – Jan. 2) with Ken.
Australian Show Caves, with Carlin Kartchner
In attendance: Emily, Peter, Steve, Carlin, Mike, Matthew, Michael, Mark, Ken, Kurt, Zeke, and Rob. Supplies we would bring to a cave with a 15-foot drop-off (in alphabetical order): an airplane escape slide, a cable ladder, a cow, a droppable camera and Dave D., food, Ken, a light source, Rob’s imagination, 3 other tall people, too much rope, and webbing.
- Pay your dues to Joel if you haven’t yet.
- November meeting topic: (tentatively) Carlin boldly talking about Australian caves!
- Holiday Party! Rob volunteered to host sometime in early December.
- Carlin, joined by Laurel, Karston, Dave, Ken, Tanya, and Emily, checked out Stone’s #1 and Cassell’s Caves. Stone’s #1 was little Karston’s first wild cave; he’s not too sure about it. A brief poke around told Carlin that it should be an easy survey, with a walk-in entrance. Nearby Cassell’s Cave appears to consist mostly of a large, well-decorated, 250-foot-long room which Dave, Ken, and Emily surveyed while Carlin investigated one very muddy crawl and one irreversible climb. Those leads require revisiting. Carlin also took pictures. The landowner was very friendly. [Ken’s trip report]
- Carlin, Emily, Tanya, Laurel, and Darth Baber joined Bill Grose and a bunch of other Virginia cavers for the cleanup of Julia Crockett’s Cave. From the entrance, the cave corkscrews down about 30 feet and, well, that’s about it. According to Carlin, the most interesting thing about it is that these people built a house almost right on top of it. Twenty-three bags of trash and nine buckets of broken glass were removed. Trash included glass bottles, shoes, toys, beer cans, metal wash tubs, et cetera. [Bill’s trip report]
- Rob went into a cave in North Korea with a natural spring in the bottom that people drink from.
- Some cavers went to Bridge Day, and we almost avoided hearing about it.
Upcoming Trips and Activities
- November 12 – Hancock Cave bat count. (Steve, Mike)
- November 15 – Social Tuesday! Bar plays at Fortnight Brewing Company.
- November 19 – Cave photography trip. Cave t.b.d. (Ken, Matthew)
- December Something – Holiday party in North Raleigh! (Rob)
- Summer 2017 – Caving in Australia. (Ken, Diana)
- Always – Available for caving. (Peter)
Limestone of Madagascar, by Mark Daughtridge
Next year’s annual grotto trip could be catered by Ken‘s Pies of All Kinds, Peter‘s Ceviche Dive, Rob‘s Nicaraguan Diner, Michael‘s Busy Pizzeria, Matthew‘s Breakfast Bistro, Emily‘s PB&J Café, Nicole‘s Taco Tent, Joel‘s Stakehouse, Lisa‘s Italian-Japanese Joint, Mike‘s Beer Canteen, and/or Eric‘s Fried Chicken & Waffle Wagon.
- Those who haven’t paid dues for the year may do so now. As of July 1, dues for the year are half price, or $7.50. The price charged by PayPal through the grotto website should be reduced from $15 to $7.50 once Carlin returns from his travels.
- Ken would like to change the wording on the website to make it clear that the grotto’s monthly meetings are open to the public. Suggestions are welcome. Lisa recommended extending that wording to the listing on the Google calendar.
- Programs. Robert knows a faculty member at NCSU who can come to September’s meeting to give an update on the homo naledi discovery. Mark could show pictures from his trip to Madagascar. Rob suggested a bolting demonstration. Peter suggested a caver’s med kit workshop, and Mike and Lisa offered to divulge what they carry.
- Water levels were low enough at Beaver Creek Cave for Ken, Carlin, Amar, Matthew L., and Sam to go finish the survey. Ken and newcomer Sam worked on sketching and profiles while the others toiled down in the lowest levels. Ken measured the lake depth at 8 feet. When they finished there, Ken and Sam headed over to the Candy Room area to get some pictures of the pretty stuff. Meanwhile Carlin’s group was submerged up to their necks. Back outside, the landowner made an appearance and chatted with the cavers for a while.
- Mike gave an account of his six-hour “sporty” trip in Norman Cave with Lisa, Connor, and Sam. It was Connor’s first cave trip and Sam’s cave suit’s first cave trip. Mike found the stream passage to be very pretty and deeper than expected. The goal was to get to the Great White Way but, even though each of the three teams was armed with a map, no one seems to have found it.
- Lisa described the next day’s trip to Bone Cave. She enjoyed being present for part of ten-month-old Pahi’s first caving adventure. Lisa compared parts of Bone to a set from an alien cave scene in an old Star Trek episode: the floor is implausibly soft and level and the water-carved walls are the color of plaster. After reaching the terminal room and heading back towards the entrance, Lisa’s cadre found the Devil’s Pinch, an extremely tight long crawl that eventually leads to Norman Cave. They “noped the hell out of there” after 400 feet or so. A through-trip could happen, but not on day two of caving.
Upcoming Trips and Activities
- Sept. 1-5 – Old Timers Reunion in Dailey, WV. Rob is registered.
- Sept. 13 – Social Tuesday. Ideas? Murder mystery? Let Ken know.
- Sept. 17 – BugFest at NC Museum of Natural Sciences. Contact Peter to volunteer.
- Oct. 1-2 – Fall VAR in Greenbrier Co., WV. Ken and Peter are likely going.
- Oct. 6-9 – TAG Fall Cave-In at Lookout Mtn, Georgia. http://tagfallcavein.org/
- Early October – Clean up trip in Wythe Co., VA. Emily will email details.
- Mid-November – Hancock Cave bat count
- t.b.d. – Sport trip (New River Cave?) with Anuj et al.
After a short break, attendees voted to adjourn to Bad Daddy’s Burger Bar.
“If you could choose one bat superpower, other than flight, what would it be?”
After the accident in the secret underground lab …
… Ken (“The Hungry Fossil”) consumes everything he wants without gaining weight … Robert (“Doctor Torpor”) has masterful control over his body temperature … Emily (“Wingwalker”) moves with a bat’s agility, just not through the air … Mike (“Laughing Stalactite”) clings to the ceiling without succumbing to dizziness … Matthew L. (“Professor Olfaxxor”) both enjoys and suffers from hyperosmia … Mark (“Wise Cracker”) decided that he was guano pass … Peter (“El Echoloco”) avoids obstacles by using echolocation … Zeke (“Sugar Fang”) takes advantage of his boosted metabolism by ordering everything on the dessert tray … Jennifer (“Kaleidoscope”) now relies on her superior vision instead of her magnifying loupes.
- If you haven’t paid dues for 2016, please do. It costs $7.50. Pay via PayPal or give money to Joel.
- Carlin has removed obsolete meeting place information from the old website, just in case.
- NSS Convention: I went on an after-hours off-trail tour to the Talus Room in Lehman Caves, a decorative marble cave in Great Basin National Park. The shield formations and tilt of the rock strata are reminiscent of Grand Caverns. The next trip was a “retro trip” to Crystal Ball Cave in Utah. Everyone used carbide. It was spectacular, lousy with glowing naihead spar and glittery aragonite crystals, so there was a lot of flash photography that sort of spoiled the retro illusion. We visited nearby Beware Spring Cave which is a small cave and warm spring with a refreshing pool. An ear dip or two got me back into a cozy half-submerged room 30 feet from the entrance. I went to a Mexican Free-tailed Bat flight at Rose Guano Cave. The entrance overlooks a field of 50 wind turbines which are timed in a way that lessens their impact on the bats. I chose to wait with the group closest to the entrance and the smell there was powerful. My favorite part of the evening was spotting scorpions with a black light.
- Mike and Lisa went to Butler Cave and stayed at the field house. In Butler Mike tried a tight squeeze that Ken probably can’t fit through. They spent some time working on Cedar Knob Cave. This cave is being excavated almost single-handedly by the property owner, a BCCS member whose exercise regimen involves hauling 15 buckets a day up the 30-foot entry shaft, one bucket at a time, because y’know there’s air flow and connections to be made. Mike and Lisa helped him dig out 60 buckets of spoils. They also visited Rat Hole 1180 to help remove a big dead tree using “a Safety Third mentality” and yet no one died. Except the tree. And we’ll assume it was already dead when they got there.
- Robert and Sarah and Ken stopped by Indian House Cave, a shelter cave near MacRae Peak on Grandfather Mountain.
- Aug. 6 – Beaver Creek Cave survey (Ken)
- Aug. 20 – ANNUAL TRITROGS TRIP! Norman Cave. Possibly Bone or Paxton on Sunday. Make suggestions. Sign up using this link: http://doodle.com/poll/t8vskpsn2sxt6c58
- Sept. 1-5 – Old Timers Reunion (Dailey, WV)
- Oct. 1-2 – Fall VAR event (Greenbrier Co., WV)
Jennifer Aldred presented “What Lies Beneath: An Introduction to the Rocks and Processes that form Karst Topography and Formations”.